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- Kamran Hacıyev
- 18 Aug, 2023
- 2 dəq
Obesity: A Medical Condition with Excessive Body Fat
Obesity is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of excess body fat, which can have negative effects on health, leading to potential reductions in life expectancy and increased health issues. Body mass index (BMI), a measure comparing weight and height, classifies individuals as overweight (pre-obese) if their BMI ranges between 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2, and obese if it exceeds 30 kg/m2.
This condition raises the risk of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep-related breathing problems, specific types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. The causes of obesity usually involve a combination of consuming excessive calories, leading a sedentary lifestyle, and genetic factors. While some cases may be primarily caused by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or psychiatric conditions, these instances are relatively uncommon. Evidence supporting the idea that certain obese individuals gain weight due to a slow metabolism despite consuming little food is limited. On average, obese people tend to have higher energy expenditure than their lean counterparts, mainly due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.
The main approach to managing obesity is through dietary changes and regular physical exercise. In cases where these methods are not effective, anti-obesity medications may be prescribed to reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption. For severe cases, surgery or the use of an intragastric balloon may be considered to decrease stomach volume and/or bowel length, resulting in earlier satiation and reduced nutrient absorption.
Obesity is a significant and preventable cause of death worldwide, with its prevalence rising in both adults and children. Health authorities consider it one of the most critical public health challenges of the 21st century. While obesity is stigmatized in many parts of the modern world, historically, it was often seen as a symbol of wealth and fertility in some cultures, and this perception still exists in certain regions.